foto JulianJulian Schaap (1988) is assistant professor in cultural sociology, currently working at Erasmus University Rotterdam. His research focuses on two pillars: first, he studies social inequalities on the basis of class, gender and race-ethnicity in (cultural) consumption and production practices, with a focus on (popular) music. Second, he works on the myriad intersections between cognitive studies and cultural sociology, particularly Bourdieusian analyses. If you want to get in touch, e-mail at:

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Julian Schaap (1988) is universitair docent cultuursociologie  aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Zijn onderzoek steunt op twee centrale pilaren. Enerzijds onderzoekt hij sociale ongelijkheden op basis van klasse, gender en ras/etniciteit in de consumptie en productie van culturele producten en praktijken, met een focus op (populaire) muziek. Anderzijds werkt hij aan de vele intersecties tussen studies over cognitie en cultuursociologie, met name Bourdieuaanse analyses. Als u contact zoekt, dan kan dat via het contactformulier of e-mail

Recently published: Gender Inequality in Metal Music Production (Pauwke Berkers & Julian Schaap)
Three percent. That is the average share of women in metal music acts across the globe over the last forty years. In metal, it seems that women are nowhere but gender is everywhere. Why has this genre been an impenetrable fortress for female musicians and are there changes towards gender equality? Gender Inequality in Metal Music Production provides a systematic theoretical overview that helps explain this huge under-representation of women in metal music. Moreover, instead of focusing on individual scenes, this book provides a unique large-scale overview of women in global metal music. By drawing from Encyclopaedia Metallum: The Metal Archives  and interview data, the authors empirically study the extent of gender inequality in metal music by comparing longitudinal trends and countries, subgenres within metal, and roles in terms of instrumentation. In addition, this book examines how the ‘double-edged sword’ – greater visibility versus not being taken seriously as a musician – affects the careers of women in metal.

“The key contributions of this book are in its data presentation, especially the quantitative data, the authors’ development and use of the concept ‘double-edged sword’, and the book’s theoretical uniqueness”
Sarah Siltanen Hosman for Gender & Society

“Gender Inequality in Metal Music Production is a ground-breaking study and definitively proves what ‘we’ (the entire known universe) all already knew from anecdotal evidence and personal experience, and that is….Metal was, and still is, a male genre. Now, we have statistical proof AND some important analysis about the how and why this phenomena exists. I expect this study to be highly useful for future generations of academics and should be found in better collections, libraries and on university reading lists everywhere”
Joshua Wood for Metal-Rules



Nationale Wetenschapsagenda: Hoe Zwaar is Licht? Meer dan 100 dringende vragen aan de wetenschap
De 21ste eeuw is de eeuw van de wetenschap. Op allerlei gebieden – gentechnologie, gezondheidszorg, milieu, kunstmatige intelligentie – staan ons grote doorbraken te wachten. Toen Beatrice de Graaf en Alexander Rinnooy Kan, ambassadeurs van de Nationale Wetenschapsagenda, alle Nederlanders in 2015 opriepen om alles wat ze altijd al eens aan ‘de wetenschap’ hadden willen vragen in te sturen, had niemand kunnen vermoeden dat Nederland zo massaal aan deze oproep gehoor zou geven. Er kwamen meer dan 12.000 vragen binnen. In Hoe zwaar is licht beantwoorden de beste wetenschappers uit Nederland – jong, oud, gevestigd, aanstormend, alfa, bèta, gamma – meer dan honderd belangrijkste en meest sprekende vragen aan de wetenschap. Voorzien van schitterend beeldmateriaal biedt dit bijzondere boek een unieke en onmisbare staalkaart van de stand van zaken van de wetenschap.

Julian geeft antwoord op de vraag “Hoe wordt smaak bepaald?” (pp.261-263).